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Martin Luther King Day in United States

Quick Facts

Martin Luther King Day marks the anniversary of the date of birth of the influential American civil right leader of the same name.

Local names

NameLanguage
Martin Luther King DayEnglish
Día de Martin Luther KingSpanish
See list of observations below
Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. It celebrates the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr., an influential American civil rights leader. He is most well-known for his campaigns to end racial segregation on public transport and for racial equality in the United States.
Martin Luther King JR
Martin Luther King Day is one of the United States' most celebrated holidays. It honors the life of a man who promoted equal rights. This illustration is based on artwork from ©iStockphoto.com/Soren Pilman

What do people do?

Martin Luther King Day is a relatively new federal holiday and there are few long standing traditions. It is seen as a day to promote equal rights for all Americans, regardless of their background. Some educational establishments mark the day by teaching their pupils or students about the work of Martin Luther King and the struggle against racial segregation and racism. In recent years, federal legislation has encouraged Americans to give some of their time on this day as volunteers in citizen action groups.

Martin Luther King Day, also known as Martin Luther King’s birthday and Martin Luther King Jr Day, is combined with other days in different states. For example, it is combined with Civil Rights Day in Arizona and New Hampshire, while it is observed together with Human Rights Day in Idaho. It is also a day that is combined with Robert E. Lee’s birthday in some states.

Public life

Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday, but has slightly different names in some states. Non-essential Government departments are closed, as are many corporations. Some schools and colleges close but others stay open and teach their students about the life and work of Martin Luther King.

Small companies, such as grocery stores and restaurants tend to be open, although a growing number are choosing to close on this day. Some compensate by opening on Washington's Birthday instead. Recent federal legislation encourages Americans to give some of their time on Martin Luther King Day as volunteers in citizen action groups. Public transit systems may or may not operate on their regular schedule.

Background

Martin Luther King was an important civil rights activist. He was a leader in the movement to end racial segregation in the United States. His most famous address was the "I Have A Dream" speech. He was an advocate of non-violent protest and became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated in 1968.

In 1968, shortly after Martin Luther King died, a campaign was started for his birthday to become a holiday to honor him. After the first bill was introduced, trade unions lead the campaign for the federal holiday. It was endorsed in 1976. Following support from the musician Stevie Wonder with his single "Happy Birthday" and a petition with six million signatures, the bill became law in 1983. Martin Luther King Day was first observed in 1986, although it was not observed in all states until the year 2000.

Martin Luther King Day Observances

WeekdayDateYearNameHoliday typeWhere it is observed
MonJan 201986Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 191987Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 181988Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 161989Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 151990Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 211991Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 201992Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 181993Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 171994Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 161995Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 151996Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 201997Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 191998Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 181999Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 172000Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 152001Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 212002Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 202003Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 192004Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 172005Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 162006Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 152007Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 212008Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 192009Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 182010Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 172011Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 162012Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 212013Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 202014Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 
MonJan 192015Martin Luther King DayNational holiday 

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